CBD 101

Cannabidiol (CBD) is a natural compound extracted from the Cannabis sativa plant. CBD works on the receptors of the endocannabinoid system which is responsible for maintaining homeostasis (balance) within your pet’s body. CBD oil has become a popular natural alternative in veterinary medicine as it can be helpful in treating various conditions such as anxiety, pain, inflammation and seizures.

Terminology to know: Avoid confusion when talking about CBD products.
1. Cannabis: refers to the plant itself. Cannabis sativa is one of three cannabis plants commonly used in the production of CBD oil.
2. Marijuana: is a term used to describe a cannabis plant that contains more than 0.3% THC.
3. Hemp: is a cannabis plant which has less than 0.3% THC. This level of THC has no psychotropic effects. Often used for its fibre.
1. Cannabis: refers to the plant itself. Cannabis sativa is one of three cannabis plants commonly used in the production of CBD oil.
2. Marijuana: is a term used to describe a cannabis plant that contains more than 0.3% THC.
3. Hemp: is a cannabis plant which has less than 0.3% THC. This level of THC has no psychotropic effects. Often used for its fibre.
4. CBD: is an abbreviation for cannabidiol. Cannabidiol is a natural compound (phytocannabinoid) extracted mainly from the flowers of the hemp plant (Cannabis sativa). Cannabidiol interacts with the endocannabinoid system and assists the body in maintaining balance.
5. THC: Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the chemical responsible for the intoxicating ‘high’ most people associate with marijuana. It works in a similar manner to CBD interacting with the receptors of the endocannabinoid system. THC is illegal in Hong Kong and none of LOP & LOA products contain THC or its related chemical compounds.
6. Cannabinoids: is an umbrella term which describes any chemical compounds (including CBD and THC) that interact with the receptors of the endocannabinoid system (ECS). There are three types:
  • Endocannabinoids - made within the body
  • Phytocannabinoids - made within a plant
  • Synthetic cannabinoids - made in a laboratory
7. Phytocannabinoids: are cannabinoids produced by plants, like Cannabis sativa. They have the ability to interact with the receptors of the endocannabinoid system. There are major cannabinoids and minor cannabinoids.
  • Major cannabinoids include: THC and CBD
  • Minor cannabinoids include: CBG, CBN, CBC and others
8. Endocannabinoid System (ECS): is the most extensive receptor system in the body. Research has shown that receptors are found on every organ system and in every animal studied to date (except insects). This system is responsible for maintaining internal homeostasis and keeping balance within the body especially during states of stress, illness and injury.
9. Flavonoids: are the compounds which give taste, colour and aroma to plants. Cannabis has unique flavonoids - Cannaflavin A, B & C. These compounds may have antioxidant and antiproliferative properties.
10. Terpenes: are the compounds that give the aromatic smell to plants. Terpenes may have therapeutic effects and interact with cannabinoids which can alter and increase their effects (entourage effect).

There are eight predominant terpenes in most cannabis strains:

  • B-caryophyllene
  • B-myrcene
  • a-pinene
  • Limonene
  • Ocimene
  • Terpinolene
  • Humelene
  • Linalool
8. Endocannabinoid System (ECS): is the most extensive receptor system in the body. Research has shown that receptors are found on every organ system and in every animal studied to date (except insects). This system is responsible for maintaining internal homeostasis and keeping balance within the body especially during states of stress, illness and injury.
9. Flavonoids: are the compounds which give taste, colour and aroma to plants. Cannabis has unique flavonoids - Cannaflavin A, B & C. These compounds may have antioxidant and antiproliferative properties.
10. Terpenes: are the compounds that give the aromatic smell to plants. Terpenes may have therapeutic effects and interact with cannabinoids which can alter and increase their effects (entourage effect).

There are eight predominant terpenes in most cannabis strains:

  • B-caryophyllene
  • B-myrcene
  • a-pinene
  • Limonene
  • Ocimene
  • Terpinolene
  • Humelene and Linalool
11. Entourage effect: is a term used to describe the synergistic effect of the cannabinoids, terpenes and flavonoids. These compounds compliment each other, enhance each other's effects and allow lower doses of a broad spectrum CBD oil to be used.
12. Potency: refers to the strength of the CBD oil and should be expressed in mg/ml. This is important when calculating the amount needed for an individual pet. A high potency CBD oil generally means less volume of CBD will be needed.
13. Full Spectrum Product: contains the two major cannabinoids (THC and CBD), other minor cannabinoids as well as terpenes and flavonoids. It has all the benefits of the entourage effect but can impart the feeling of euphoria due to the presence of THC. THC carries many medical benefits but in Hong Kong it is illegal. Full spectrum CBD products are illegal in Hong Kong.
14. Broad Spectrum Product: carries many of the benefits of a Full Spectrum CBD oil but contains zero THC. It contains one major cannabinoid (CBD), other minor cannabinoids as well as terpenes and flavonoids. It has the advantage of the entourage effect without the intoxicating effects of THC.
15. Isolate Product: contains only one type of cannabinoid- e.g cannabidiol (CBD). Isolate products lack the presence of other naturally occurring compounds such as terpenes, flavonoids as well as minor cannabinoids. CBD isolates will derive their effect from only CBD and lack the entourage effect. CBD isolates often require higher doses to achieve desired results compared with broad spectrum products.
13. Full Spectrum Product: contains the two major cannabinoids (THC and CBD), other minor cannabinoids as well as terpenes and flavonoids. It has all the benefits of the entourage effect but can impart the feeling of euphoria due to the presence of THC. THC carries many medical benefits but in Hong Kong it is illegal. Full spectrum CBD products are illegal in Hong Kong.
14. Broad Spectrum Product: carries many of the benefits of a Full Spectrum CBD oil but contains zero THC. It contains one major cannabinoid (CBD), other minor cannabinoids as well as terpenes and flavonoids. It has the advantage of the entourage effect without the intoxicating effects of THC.
15. Isolate Product: contains only one type of cannabinoid- e.g cannabidiol (CBD). Isolate products lack the presence of other naturally occurring compounds such as terpenes, flavonoids as well as minor cannabinoids. CBD isolates will derive their effect from only CBD and lack the entourage effect. CBD isolates often require higher doses to achieve desired results compared with broad spectrum products.
16. Hemp Seed Oil: is extracted from hemp seeds which do not contain significant amounts of cannabinoids including CBD. They are, however, a complete source of protein, are high in omega 3 fatty acids, and contain many antioxidants. Hemp seed products are often used for body care, as nutraceuticals and food additives.
16. Hemp Seed Oil: is extracted from hemp seeds which do not contain significant amounts of cannabinoids including CBD. They are, however, a complete source of protein, are high in omega 3 fatty acids, and contain many antioxidants. Hemp seed products are often used for body care, as nutraceuticals and food additives.
17. Medium-chain Triglyceride (MCT): is a delivery agent for the CBD. Cannabinoids are lipophilic which means they are fat-loving and are most effective when delivered in a fatty ingredient which increases absorption. LOP & LOA uses organic coconut oil which has a neutral taste and minimal odour.
18. Certificate of Analysis (COA): is a 3rd party analysis proving what is on the label is in the bottle. Each batch of CBD should be accompanied by a COA.

HOW DOES CBD OIL WORK?

Animals produce natural endogenous cannabinoids referred to as endocannabinoids which bind to the Cannabinoid Receptors (CB receptors). There are two types of CB receptors- CB1 and CB2.

CBD and THC molecules (phytocannabinoids) are very similar in structure to these naturally occurring endocannabinoids and as a result exert a similar effect at these receptors.

In addition to working at the CB1 and CB2 receptors the endo- and phytocannabinoids also have the ability to bind and interact with other receptors in the body such as the serotonin, vanilloid and dopamine receptors amongst others.

The interaction at all these receptors results in modulation of neurotransmitters, down regulation of inflammatory proteins, as well as an increase in naturally occurring endocannabinoids and other feel-good molecules.

BENEFITS OF CBD and THE SCIENCE

Due to the interactions at multiple receptor sites throughout the body, CBD and other cannabinoids have many positive effects.

  • Reduction in anxiety
  • Improved seizure control
  • Improved pain control
  • Improved mobility in animals with arthritis
  • Anti-inflammatory effects
  • Reduction in gastrointestinal disturbances
  • Support and modulation of the immune system
  • Assisting with sleep quality
  • Nausea reduction and improved appetite
  • Anti-cancer effects
  • General well-being and balance

CBD is a hot area of clinical research in the veterinary industry at the moment. There are numerous well designed clinical studies emerging that highlight the benefits of CBD and other cannabinoids. In addition, many veterinary practitioners report good results with their own patients as well as pet owners reporting clinical improvement in their pets.

DOSING

Being veterinarian owned, LOP & LOA base suggestions and recommendations on the latest CBD research in animals (and humans).

DOSING

Being veterinarian owned, LOP & LOA base suggestions and recommendations on the latest CBD research in animals (and humans).

Precise dosing is based on:

  • Weight of the pet
  • Potency of the product
  • Health status of the pet
  • Reason for using CBD

Based on our experience, the dose range of LOP & LOA CBD oil is 0.25 - 2.0 mg/kg in the mouth TWICE daily* for most cats and dogs. CBD dosing varies from product to product. These doses may not apply to other brands of CBD oil.

Administration: drops as far as possible should be placed into your pet’s mouth, alternatively they can be placed on a small amount of food.

We recommend a starting dose of:

1 mg/kg in the mouth TWICE daily for 2 weeks

Adjust the dose based on response after this period

SAFETY and WHY IT IS A GOOD IDEA TO CHAT WITH YOUR VETERINARIAN

As there are no CB1 receptors within the brainstem, CBD oil is very safe. In addition, LOP & LOA CBD oil contains zero THC, in compliance with Hong Kong Law, so the psychotropic effects of cannabis are not experienced at all. Many good safety studies have been conducted in dogs and cats and have shown high doses of CBD are tolerated with minimal side effects.

Use with caution in the following pets

  • Pets with pre-existing liver problems or raised liver values
  • Pets on current medication that use the Cytochrome P450 family of enzymes for metabolism
  • Pets currently on medication that make them more sleepy
  • Very young and very old pets
  • Pregnant or lactating pets

SIDE EFFECTS

  • Drowsiness
  • Increase in the liver enzyme: ALKP
  • Loose stools (possibly due to MCT oil base)

The Use of CBD oil in pets with liver problems

The Use of CBD oil in pets with liver problems

Multiple studies report an increase in one of the liver enzymes, mainly Alkaline phosphatase (ALKP), when CBD oil is used at the higher end of the dose range. Despite these increases the bile acids (a measure of liver function) and ALT another liver enzyme remained normal. The dogs involved in the studies were non-clinical for the increase in ALKP.

The exact mechanism of action has not been well studied but may be linked to the influence CBD has on the Cytochrome P450 system within the liver. When CBD oil is ingested orally, it is absorbed in the small intestine and carried to the liver, where it is metabolized by a group of enzymes called Cytochrome P450 (CYP). At higher dosages, CBD can temporarily inhibit CYP enzymes by competing for the binding site.

This may affect the metabolism of other medications that are broken down by the same pathway, leading to higher circulating quantities of these medications. Speak with your veterinarian to ensure medications your pet is currently taking do not use this metabolic pathway.

Written by: Dr Tiffany Harries (BSc, BVSc, MRCVS) & Dr Christopher Perkins (BSc, BVSc)


Co-founders of LOP & LOA Ltd.

Chief Veterinary Officers for LOP & LOA Ltd.

Certified Cannabinoid Consultants (CCBDC)